STUDY ON SPIRIT AND SOUL
You should be able to see in this study of soul
and spirit in both Hebrew and Greek that the Hebrew and Greek words are in
complete agreement. The spirit is the
immortal part of us, the soul is related only to the flesh.
(1) Hebrew - Spirit - ruwach - Breath, life or by resemblance “spirit” but only of a rational being including it’s expression and functions.
(2) Greek - Spirit - pneuma - (a) human as in the rational (and immortal) soul, or (b) superhuman as in angels, demons or (c) divine as in God, Christ’s spirit or the Holy Spirit.
(1) Hebrew - Soul - nephesh - a breathing creature, i.e. animal
(2) Greek - Soul - psuche - the animal sentient principle only.
(1) Hebrew - Alive - chay - life of any kind such as plants and animals.
(2) Greek - Alive - zoe - mere vitality, even of plants
Spirit - ruwach, roo'-akh, Hebrew 7307; from Hebrew 7306 (ruwach); wind; by resemblance breath, i.e. a sensible (or even violent) exhalation; figurative life, anger, unsubstantiality; by extensive a region of the sky; by resemblance spirit, but only of a rational being (including its expression and functions) :- air, anger, blast, breath, ƒn cool, courage, mind, ƒn quarter, ƒn side, spirit ([-ual]), tempest, ƒn vain, ([whirl-]) wind (-y).
Soul - nephesh, neh'-fesh, Hebrew 5315; from Hebrew 5314 (naphash); properly a breathing creature, i.e. animal or (abstract) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental) :- any, appetite, beast, body, breath, creature, ƒn dead (-ly), desire, ƒn [dis-] contented, ƒn fish, ghost, + greedy, he, heart (-y), (hath, ƒn jeopardy of) life (ƒn in jeopardy), lust, man, me, mind, mortally, one, own, person, pleasure, (her-, him-, my-, thy-) self, them (your) -selves, + slay, soul, + tablet, they, thing, (ƒn she) will, ƒn would have it.
living - chay, khah'ee, Hebrew 2416; from Hebrew 2421 (chayah); alive; hence raw (flesh); fresh (plant, water, year), strong; also (as noun, especially in the feminine singular and masculine plural) life (or living thing), whether literal or figurative :- + age, alive, appetite, (wild) beast, company, congregation, life (-time), live (-ly), living (creature, thing), maintenance, + merry, multitude, + (be) old, quick, raw, running, springing, troop.
Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul or “psuche” (mortal, carnal nature “Old Man”) and spirit, “pneuma” (the rational soul or spirit “New Man”) and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
Soul - psuche, psoo-khay', Greek 5590; from Greek 5594 (*psucho); breath, i.e. (by implication) spirit, abstract or concrete (the animal sentient principle only; thus distinguished on the one hand from (Greek 4151 (pneuma), which is the rational and immortal soul; and on the other from (**Greek 2222 (zoe), which is mere vitality, even of plants: these terms thus exactly correspond respectively to the Hebrew Hebrew 5315 (nephesh), Hebrew 7307 (ruwach) and Hebrew 2416 (chay)- :- heart (+ -ily), life, mind, soul, + us, + you.
*psucho, psoo'-kho, Greek 5594; a primary verb; to breathe (voluntarily but gently; thus differing on the one hand from Greek 4154 (pneo), which denotes properly a forcible respiration; and on the other from the base of Greek 109 (aer), which refers properly to an inanimate breeze), i.e. (by implication of reduction of temperature by evaporation) to chill (figurative) :- wax cold.
**zoe, dzo-ay', Greek 2222; from Greek 2198 (zao); life (literal or figurative) :- life (-time). Compare Greek 5590 (psuche).
The Greek word “pneuma” is a spirit, i.e. (1) human as in the rational soul, or (2) superhuman as in angels, demons or (3) divine as in God, Christ’s spirit or the Holy Spirit. So you see here there are three different kinds of spirits, human, superhuman and divine.
Spirit - pneuma, pnyoo'-mah, Greek 4151; from *Greek 4154 (pneo); a current of air, i.e. breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy or figurative (1) a spirit, i.e. (human) the rational soul, (by implicaiton) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (2) (superhuman) an angel, d'mon, or (3) (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy Spirit :- ghost, life, spirit (-ual, -ually), mind. Compare Greek 5590 (psuche).
*pneo, pneh'-o, Greek 4154; a primary word; to breathe hard, i.e. breeze :- blow. Compare Greek 5594 (psucho).
The Greek word – “Psuche” is the breath that all creatures, human and animal have. This is distinguished from the Greek 4151 – “pneuma” which is the rational and immortal soul.
So in summing this up, the soulish part of man is the lusts and appetites of the flesh and the spirit part of man is that new man that Christ made a brand new creation. This is the way I can see it.
The Latent Power of the Soul by: Watchman Nee