FATHER AND/OR SON
By: H. Wayne Hamburger
The doctrine of Trinity has been embraced by a vast majority of the Christian world including both Protestantism and Catholicism. Yet it remains one of the most divisive issues among Christians. Most people are hard pressed to explain how God can be both three and one. Christian leaders from every century since Christ have attempted to explain the phenomenon. A number of criteria have been used and all have passed on a traditional concept of Trinity.
One of the most learned scholars of this century, C. S. Lewis, tries to define the Trinity in his book entitled, "Mere Christianity". Mr. Lewis explains it thus: "On the human level one person is one being, and any two persons are two separate beings. In God's dimension, so to speak, you find a being who is three Persons while remaining one Being, just as a cube is six squares while remaining one cube. Of course we cannot fully conceive a Being like that, but we can get a faint notion of it". Well the truth is that I can't even get a faint notion of such a being.
A fellow Christian once told me that the concept of Trinity would be simple if I would just visualize it as an egg. He said that an egg has three parts: yoke, shell and clear membrane, but is still one egg. He could not tell me which part of the egg represented God, Son and Holy Spirit.
Another person told me that the Trinity was like a favorite food that was made up of three ingredients blended into a recipe to make one dish. That did not register with me either. Most people who are questioned about the Trinity simply say that they don't understand it and can't explain it, but yet they believe it. A fellow-worker once told me that her Sunday School teacher told her that she must believe in Trinity and so she accepted it and has never had reason to doubt it. Another friend told me that an unlearned person reading the Bible may come to the conclusion that God and His Son are separate, and such a person would have to be taught the truth.
The truth of the matter is that most persons don't know what they believe and those that think they know can't prove their beliefs from the Bible. Most just pick out the scriptures that conform to the beliefs they hold true and ignore the rest of the Bible.
None of us are totally objective in our thought processes or in our speech or in our writings. I have come to some subjective decisions concerning the Trinity, however; I am going to try to present my views as much as humanly possible from passages of Holy Scripture. The most that I can hope for is that the reader will study these scriptures on his/her own. The key word here is "study".
Jewish monotheism or the worship of one God had been practiced from the time of Abraham throughout the entire history of the Bible. When Jesus began His ministry, He stated in Matthew 5:17. "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy but to fulfil". At no time did Jesus attempt to destroy their monotheistic views. For centuries the Jewish people had been expecting a Messiah. The Messiah literally meant the Anointed One. They were expecting a king and deliverer and did not expect that their invisible God would send His own son to be their deliverer.
Many of the prophets wrote about the Messiah although only one, Daniel, called Him Messiah. Some of the writers of the Old Testament such as Daniel, David and Isaiah recognized that God had a son. Daniel describes in 7:13-14 how God will give His son dominion and glory and a Kingdom. David records in the Psalm 2:7, "Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee", Psalm 91:9, "Because thou hast made the Lord", and in Psalm 110: 1, "The Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool". Isaiah 53 says, "And the Lord has laid on Him the iniquity of us all and yet it pleased the Lord to bruise Him; He has put Him to grief'. Moses mentions Jesus in Genesis 21:17 and 22:11 when he refers to him as the Angel of God. Jesus identified Himself to Joshua (5:14) as captain of the host of the Lord.
When Jesus came to earth in human flesh, he referred to Himself as the Son of God. In fact, there are almost seventy scriptures in the Bible that refer to Jesus as the Son of God. Forty six of those scriptures specifically call Jesus the Son of God and the rest simply refer to Jesus as "His Son". In Matthew 3:17 and 17:5, God the Father speaks from heaven in an audible voice for all to hear in the presence of Jesus. God says, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased". Matthew 17:6 records how frightened the apostles were by the voice of God.
The Jews who heard Jesus declare Himself the Son of God took issue with that because in their eyes He was claiming to be equal to God. Jesus made no such claims of equality with God. On the contrary, Jesus said in John 14:28, "I go unto the Father: for my Father is greater than I". In John 5:30, Jesus says, "I can of mine own self do nothing; as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me". Jesus said in John 6:44, "No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him". In Matthew 19:17, Jesus says, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but One that is God". In John 7:16, Jesus says, "My doctrine is not mine, but His who sent Me" and in John 7:18, "He who speaks for himself seeks his own glory; but He who seeks the glory of the One who sent Him is true". Again in John 8:28, Jesus says, "When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am He, and that I do nothing of Myself, but as My Father taught Me, I speak these things". Jesus also said in John 8:54, "If I honour myself, my honour is nothing: it is my Father that honoureth me; of whom ye say, that he is your God". All of these statements by Jesus clearly indicate that He does not consider Himself equal to God. He always pointed people toward the Father in heaven as the eternal God.
In a book written by Josh McDowell entitled, "Evidence That Demands A Verdict", he spends a whole chapter on Jesus as God's Son. Mr. McDowell quotes one author after another that concludes that Jesus is God. Dozens of scriptures are quoted relating the fact that Jesus was and is the Son of God and yet the writers all conclude that Jesus claimed equality with God. No proof is offered from the Holy Bible. Their explanation is that because Jesus claimed to be the Son of God, He was also claiming to be co-equal and co-eternal. In a book written by Carey L. Daniel, entitled, "The Bible's Seeming Contradictions", Mr. Daniel cites John 14:28 as one of the Bible's apparent contradictions when Jesus says that the Father was greater than He was. Mr. Daniel in effect is saying that Jesus didn't mean to say that.
Until the apostasy of the early church there was no confusion or controversy over the person of Christ as the Son of God. For 4000 years Jewish documents and traditions followed the monotheistic belief of one God. Jesus chose men to be his apostles from the common people, none of which were highly educated, but all Jewish traditionalists.
All of the apostles recognized Jesus as the Son of God and not the eternal God and Father of the universe. As noted previously in the book of Matthew, they had heard God speak from heaven to verify both His existence, and the fact that Jesus was His Son. At the transfiguration in Luke 9:35, "And there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him". Peter writes in I Peter 1:3, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ". Paul writes in 2 Corinthians 11:31, "The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for evermore, knoweth that I do not lie". Paul writes in Ephesians 1:3, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" and again in 1: 17, "That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him". These verses say Jesus had a God and these disciples had no problem with the person of Jesus or God.
When Jesus asked Peter who he thought that Jesus was, Peter's response in Mt. 16:16, "Thou art the Christ, the son of the living God", and again in Mark 8:29, "Thou art the Christ" clearly indicating Peter's full recognition of Jesus and God. Some would have us believe that Peter stood there with the belief that God and Jesus inhabited the same body which stood before him. In Luke 2:38, there is an account of Anna, the prophetess, who looks upon the baby Jesus and recognizes Him as the Son of God. Another account in Luke 2:25-32 describes how a just and devout man called Simeon recognized the baby Jesus as the Son of God and the fulfillment of Old Testament scripture. The apostles all referred to Jesus as Lord and they referred to the Heavenly Father as God. Examples are as follow: Paul writes in Romans 1:7, "Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ'. Similar greetings are found in I Corinthians 1:3, 2 Corinthians 1:2, 11:3 1, Galatians 1:1, Ephesians 1:2-3, Philippians 1:2, Colossians 1:3, 1 Thessalonians 3:11, 2 Thessalonians 1:2, 1 Timothy 1:2, 2 Timothy 1:2, 4: 1, "I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ", Titus 1:4, "To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior". In all of these references the apostle Paul uses the conjunction "and" to indicate both Father and Son without confusion as to whether they are separate.
James, the brother of Jesus, records in 1:1, "James a servant of God and the Lord Jesus Christ". Peter records in I Peter 1:3, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ". John records in 2 John 1:3, "Grace be with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love".
Many people take Paul's passage in Philippians 2:6, "Who being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God", to mean that Jesus claimed equality with God. Paul goes on to explain in 2:9, "Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name". Paul leaves no doubt here that Jesus is not equal to God. The second chapter of Philippians concentrates on how Jesus had humbled Himself before God and had taken on a role of servant before both God and man. God exalted Jesus and the Son always recognized that fact. Paul says that Jesus was obedient to the Father even unto death on the cross which was not His will but the will of the Father who sent Him.
The apostles used the Greek word Theos in relation to God the Father and the corresponding Hebrew words for God were Elohim and Jehovah. The Greek words the apostles used for Jesus the Son of God were Kyrios and Despotes. The terms were used to designate Jesus as their Lord and Master. There is no doubt that the apostles recognized His Lordship as the Son of God and at the same time they were aware of His subordinate role to God the Father. There was no conflict in their monotheistic view of God and of His Son Jesus. These were clearly two different deities to them. They saw nothing wrong in the Son being submissive and obedient to His Father.
Just how did these beliefs of the apostles get adulterated? Where did the terms like deity, divinity, trinity, homoousios, co-equal, co-eternal, consubstantial come from? The terms aren't in the Bible so how did they come to be used in relation to Jesus and God? The word "divine" is used mostly to connote understanding, prophecy, and intuition.
For four thousand years the Hebrews accepted God as an unseen spirit whose power and presence was beyond comprehension. When their Messiah finally came as Jesus the Son of God, they could neither recognize Him nor accept Him as the Messiah. Part of this was that they were expecting a King and part of it was due to the fact that they could not accept deity among them that they could see, touch and feel. Conversely, the Romans who ruled the known world at that time embraced their own mythological gods as well as some of the Greek gods of that time. These mythological gods were given human attributes and many were thought to have walked among men and participated in daily activities. When the Romans finally realized that they could not stamp out Christianity and decided to embrace it during the time of Constantine, they found it the natural thing to do to combine both their mythological religion with Christianity. The Romans could easily relate to Jesus because they had seen Him in the flesh, but they could not relate to God the Father who was an unseen spirit.
For example, Constantine was a solar henotheist, believing that the Roman sun god, Sol, was the visible manifestation of an invisible "Highest God", who was the principle behind the universe. This god was thought to be the companion of the Roman emperor. Constantine was reported to have dreamed that Christ appeared to him before a major battle and he had the first two letters of His name in Greek placed on the shields of his troops. When he won the battle, Constantine, who had been a pagan solar worshiper, now looked upon the Christian deity as a sign of victory. Of course, the apostasy of the early church began long before Constantine's time, but is related here as an example of how the religious philosophy prior to Christ contributed to the adulteration of Christ's teachings and that of the apostles.
As the apostles died off, church leaders came from the ranks of the learned philosophers rather than from common people like Jesus chose. These philosophers found it advantageous to combine both Greek and Roman mythology with Christian teachings. These leaders could relate to Jesus who had been here in the flesh, but found it harder to relate to an unseen God. Their answer for this dilemma was to embrace the idea that this Jesus who had been seen had to be the one and same God of the Hebrews who had never been seen. This gave credence to both mythology and Christianity. This received wide acceptance from the Roman masses which provided a favourable environment for novel religious ideas. There were many mystery religions and mystery cults that made their way to Rome. All of these philosophies had a Greek rootage into which Christianity moved. Aristotle seemed to have a striking influence on Christian thought following the demise of the original apostles. Christianity quickly moved out of the Jewish community and became prevailingly non-Jewish. In the book, "A History of Christianity" by Kenneth Scott Latourette, it states: "Christianity, still relatively flexible in thought forms, would tend to find expression through the ideas abroad in Hellenism and perhaps would even be molded by them and some of the initial converts came straight from pure paganism". In a book by Howard F. Vos entitled, "Highlights of Church History", he writes: "The approach and purpose of the Apologists was entirely different from that of the Apostolic Fathers. The Apologists sought to win legal recognition for Christianity and to defend it against certain charges leveled against it by the pagan populace. In constructing this defense, the Apologists wrote in a more philosophical vein than the Apostolic Fathers. A generation of Christians from a higher social class and with more extensive education had arisen".
It was into this climate that the formation of Trinitarian thought began to materialize. The apostles and their followers did not cast off Jewish monotheism simply because the Son of God had been revealed to them in the flesh. Trinitarians argued that the Jewish traditionalists did not have to give up their beliefs to accept it. Paul warned his followers about this in Romans 16:17, "Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them". Again Paul writes in Ephesians 4:14, "That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive". Jude 19, "These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit. Peter writes in 2 Peter 3:17, "Ye therefore, beloved, seeing ye know these things before, beware lest ye also, being led away with the error of the wicked, fall from your own steadfastness". The Gentile concept of God in the trinity surely fulfilled the prophecies of both Paul and Peter. It was a pagan idea that came straight from mythology that there was a triune God. The theory of God and Jesus being one deity is like saying that black and white are variations of the same color.
As late as the Council of Nicea in A.D. 325, church leaders such as Arius were still trying to preserve the teachings of the apostles and was labeled a heretic for doing so. His beliefs that Jesus had a beginning is founded in scripture and will be presented in this document. We have already shown where Christ Himself wrote that He was subordinate to the Father. The real heretics were legitimized by Constantine.
In order to understand the separateness of Jesus and God the Father we have to start with what is referred to in the Bible as the beginning. The beginning can't refer to God the Father because a number of scriptures say that God the Father is eternal and has no beginning nor ending. God the Father is called the everlasting or eternal God in Genesis 21:33, in Psalm 90:2, Isaiah 40:28, Habakkuk 1:2, and in Romans 16:26. The words everlasting and eternal are always used in describing God the Father and never in relation to Jesus because He did have a beginning according to the scriptures. All the scripture refer to Jesus as the only begotten son of the Father. This is mentioned in the Old Testament in the book of Psalm 2:7, "Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee". This is not talking about the birth of Jesus in human flesh but rather His existence from the beginning. John 1:1, "In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God, and the Word was God". When Jesus was begotten of the Father He became the Word. This denotes the initial existence of Jesus the Son of God.
In numerous places in the New Testament the writers speak of Jesus as the only begotten son. Some of these are as follow: John 1: 18, "the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father", John 3:16, "He gave His only begotten Son", John 3:18, "not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God", Hebrews 1:5, "For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?" Hebrews 5:5, says "Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee", I John 4:9, says, "because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world". Revelation 1:5, says "And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead". John 13:3, says "Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God". These scriptures state that Jesus was begotten or born or created by God first as a spirit and then later as a human being. The creation of Jesus was His birth as an offspring spirit of God the Father.
The word, "begotten", in current usage means to father or sire or procreate a child. In Vine's Dictionary of Biblical words transcribing the Greek into English, the following is found in relation to begotten: "gennao" means to be born; another form of the word is "apokueo" meaning to give birth to or bring forth, and yet another form of begotten called "k-ueo" meaning to be pregnant, and finally "tikto" which also means to bring forth.
Had Jesus always co-existed with the Father as Trinitarians proclaim, there would be no need for Him to have been begotten by the Father. The only co-existence prior to the time that Jesus was begotten of the Father would have been in the seed or the mind of God. The Bible would have had to have erred in more than sixty entries relating the fact that God the Father had begotten a son. Jesus always deferred to the Father as a good son should do. He prayed to the Father and not to Himself The very act of praying is an act of submission to something or someone. Jesus clearly emphasized that both He and the Father had separate wills. In Matthew 26:39, Jesus says, "O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt". Paul writes in Romans 15:3, "For even Christ pleased not himself'. Jesus states in Psalm 69:7, "Because for thy sake I have borne reproach; shame hath covered my face".
These passages show that there are two different deities with two different wills. Jesus specifically told His disciples that the Father was greater than He was in John 14:28. Jesus states in John 5:19, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself,” but what He seeth the Father do". God begat Jesus to perform certain responsibilities as the Son of God. His primary responsibility was to become the creator. John 1:3, "All things were made by Him; and without Him was not anything made that was made". In Colossians 1: 15, Jesus is described, "Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature", 1: 16, "For by Him were all things created, that are in heaven and that are in the earth"; 1: 18, "And He is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things He might have the preeminence". Hebrews 11:28,"lest he that destroyed the firstborn should touch them". Hebrews 12:23, "To the general assembly and the church of the firstborn". Hebrews 1:6, "And again when He bringeth in the first begotten into the world, He saith, And let all the Angels of God worship Him". In Revelation 3:14, Jesus calls Himself the beginning of the creation of God.
The author of Acts becomes even more specific in his reference to Jesus in verse 2:36, "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ". Isaiah writes about Jesus in verse 45:1 1, "Thus saith the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, and His maker". Paul writes in I Corinthians 3:23, "And ye are Christ's; and Christ is God's". He also writes in Ephesians 1:17, "That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory", Peter writes in I Peter 1:2 1, "Who by him do believe in God, that raised Him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God". Again these scriptures have emphasized the predominance of God the Father over Jesus the Son.
Jesus is quoted in John 4:25, "God is a Spirit: and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth". Also in John 1: 18, "No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared Him". Jesus again in John 6:46, "Not that any man hath seen the Father, save He which is of God, He hath seen the Father". I John 4:12, says "No man hath seen God at any time". John 4:20, "If a man say, I love God. and hateth his brother, he is a liar: for he that loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen?" Jesus said in John 4:37, "And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath born witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape". Paul writes in Colossians 1: 15, "Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature". In Exodus 3:6 it is written that Moses hid his face because he was afraid to look on God. In I Kings 19:13 it explains how Elijah was not allowed to look upon God and he wrapped his face in his mantle. How is it then if Jesus was God that literally thousands of people were allowed to look upon Him and converse with Him?
In a prior reference, John 4:24, Jesus is quoted as saying that God is Spirit. Since Jesus was begotten of God, He too was Spirit. The Son became flesh at God's command, but the Father did not change from an unseen spirit. The Father used the same process to impregnate the virgin Mary with His Spirit as He did when He begat Jesus in heaven eons ago. The only begotten son was the firstborn of all creation. Colossians 1: 15, "Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature". Colossians 1:18, "And He is the head of the body, the church; who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence" and in Revelation 3:14 Jesus is called the beginning of the creation of God. Paul writes in Romans 8:29, "For whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of His son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren".
Having been the firstborn or first creation of God the Father, Jesus was given the responsibility of all other creation as stated in John 1:3 and the first chapter of Genesis. Jesus is rightfully called God because His beginning was as the only begotten Son of God giving Him the rightful family name of God. Jesus was the first and only offspring of God the Father and as such inherited authority and power from His Father. Paul writes in Hebrews 1:2, "Hath in these last days spoken unto us by His Son, whom He hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also He made the worlds". In Romans 8:17, Paul writes, "And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ". Paul also writes in Galatians 4:7, "Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ". If Jesus is God the Father as the trinity doctrine emphasizes, how then did he become an heir of Himself. How can Christians be joint heirs with Jesus if Jesus isn't an heir of God?
The plural pronouns and verbs used in the Bible in reference to God and His Son designate two separate Gods. The first chapter of Genesis uses the pronouns "us" and "our" in describing the Father and His Son Jesus. Isaiah 6:8, "Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?. Jesus says in John 14:23, "If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him". Jesus once again uses a plural pronoun in John 15:24, "If I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father".
A number of scriptures state that God sent His Son Jesus. If Jesus and God were the same deity there would be no reason for one to send the other. John 3:17, "For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved". In John 3:4, "For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him". Acts 3:26, "Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities". Galatians 4:4, "But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law". In I John 4:9-10, "In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into world, that we might live through him. Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins". Jesus says in John 7:28, "Ye both know me, and ye know whence I am: and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not" and again in 7:29, "But I know him: for I am from him, and he hath sent me". Jesus says again in John 8:29, "And he that sent me is with me: the Father hath not left me alone; for I do always those things that please him". And again Jesus says in John 8:42, "If God were your Father, ye would love me: for I proceeded forth and came from God; neither came I of myself, but he sent me". Why does Jesus keep saying that He was sent and that He came from God if He were God the Father? If He actually was God in one being, why didn't He just say so instead of all the statements about His separation from the Father?
The oneness of the Son and the Father is stressed repeatedly in the book of John and this has been the basis of confusion among the Trinitarians. Paul writes in I Corinthians 8:6, "But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him". Solomon writes in Proverbs 30:4, "Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in a garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son's name, if thou canst tell? John 10:30 seems to be the primary scripture used by Trinitarians in their belief that Jesus/God is one entity. Jesus simply said, "I and my Father are one". Had they been the same entity Jesus would have had to make the same statement that Moses made in Deuteronomy 6:4, "Hear, 0 Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord". Jesus fully explains what he meant by one in John 17:11, "Holy Father keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me, that they may be one even as we are". He further explains it in verse 21 "I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in Him, and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me". Paul stresses this same concept in Philippians 2:2, "Fulfill ye my joy, that ye be like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind". Paul again in Ephesians 4:5, "One Lord- one faith, one baptism. One God and one Father of all". Once again Paul is calling Jesus Lord and the Father God. Romans 12:4, "for as we have many members in one body", 15:6, "that ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God", Acts 2: 1, "and when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place", 4:24, "they lifted up their voice to God with one accord", 8:6, "and the people with one accord gave heed unto those things which Philip spake". Vine's Dictionary of Biblical Words specifies that the term "one accord" appears eleven times in the book of Acts and means of the same mind. Jesus could only have meant that He and the Father were of one mind in John 10:30 especially when Paul says in Ephesians 4:5-6, "One Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all". This statement by Paul specifically makes distinction between Jesus, God, faith and baptism. Paul, in the second chapter of Ephesians explains how both Jews and Gentiles are made one with the middle wall of partition broken down. Paul again explains in the third chapter of I Corinthians how he had established churches and Apollos had watered, but they were yet one: "Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one".
The oneness throughout the New Testament is not concerning individual personalities, but rather a singleness of mind and purpose. This was the way Jesus describes His relationship with God the Father. When He was praying for his disciples in the seventeenth chapter of John He was asking that they become one in mind and not one single disciple. He was asking that the disciples be in one accord, one mind and one spirit just as He and His Father were. The Father and the Son are so attuned to each other in will, purpose and intent that Jesus desired this same quality in Ms disciples. This theme of oneness is carried throughout the New Testament. In Acts 4:32, it is written, "And the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and one soul; neither said any of them that ought of the things which he possessed was his own; but they had all things common". Romans 12:16, says "Be of the same mind one toward another". Romans 15:5-6, states "Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be like-minded one toward another according to Christ Jesus: that ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ". I Corinthians 8:6, says "But to us there is but one God the Father, of who are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him". In 2 Corinthians 13:11 it says, "be of one mind". Paul again says in Philippians 1:27, "that ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel". He follows up in 2:2, "Fulfil ye my joy, that ye be like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind". Paul once again in Philippians 4:2, "I beseech Euodias and beseech Syntyche, that they be of the same mind in the Lord". Peter also stresses this in I Peter 3:8, "be ye all of one mind". John in the book of Revelation 17:13, "These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast". I believe we can conclude from these many references that Jesus in John 10:30 was not limiting Himself and the Father to one individual deity.
It is recorded many times in the New Testament that Jesus ascended and sat down at the right hand of the Father. Jesus even spoke in Revelation 3:21 and said, "To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne". This statement says that not only are Jesus and God separate, but Jesus has His own throne. Mark 16:19, "So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God". Acts 2: 4, "Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear. For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand". In Acts 7:56, "I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God". In Romans 8:34, "It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God". In Colossians 3: 1, "where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God". In Hebrews 12:2, "Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God". I Peter 3:22, "Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God". If God and Jesus were the same deity, it would not be possible for the Bible authors to describe Jesus as being at the right hand of God the Father. It would have been easier to say that Jesus represents the right side of God and the Father represents the left side of God. No such nonsense is entered in the scripture. The Bible clearly delineates between the Father and Son and the Son is in an ancillary role.
The very fact that the Son took on human flesh is evidence of His subservient role to the Father. Jesus was seen by hundreds or maybe thousands of people when He was in human form, but the Father has never been seen by man as recorded in the Bible. Jesus was seen by both Steven and Paul after He ascended as recorded in Acts 7:55-56 and in the ninth chapter of Acts. In Exodus 3:6, it is recorded that Moses could not look upon the face of God. In John 1: 18, it states, "No man hath seen God at any time" and again in John 5:37, Jesus states, "And the Father himself, which hath sent me, hath born witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape". Paul records in I Timothy 6:16, "Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; Who no man hath seen, nor can see". John 4:24 states that God is a Spirit and as a Spirit no man has been able to see Him. God the Father, a Spirit, beget a Son who was also an invisible Spirit until God converted that heavenly spirit into a human seed in the body of Mary. This transformation of Spirit into flesh was at the behest of God the Father who was and is in supreme control of the celestial bodies, heaven and earth. Jesus does those things that God the Father bids Him to do.
Even Satan is recorded to have recognized Jesus as the Son of God rather than the Supreme God the Father. Satan says in Matthew 4:3, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread". Again in Mark 1:24, "Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth?--I know who thou art, the Holy one of God". Luke 8:28, "What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God most high". Luke 4:41, "And devils also came out of many, crying out, and saying, Thou art Christ the Son of God. And he rebuking them suffered them not to speak: for they knew that he was Christ". Jesus in the service of His Father Was on a mission for the Father and was not about to destroy Satan at that time. He knew that God the Father has a timetable for the destruction of Satan and Jesus was not about to compromise His Father's plan.
David the King recognized Jesus as the subservient Son of the Father. In Psalm 91:9 and again in Psalm I 10:1, David writes, "The Lord, said unto my Lord, sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool". Jesus quoted the Psalm in Matthew 22:42-45, "Saving, What think ye of Christ? Whose son is he? They say unto him, the son of David. He saith unto them, Now then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, the Lord said unto my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstools If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?" Jesus repeatedly reminded His followers of His obeisance to the Father even to the extent that He reminded His disciples that no one could even come to Him unless they were drawn by the Father. Jesus acts like and manifests the same Spirit as the Father and as the Son is of the family of God He is called Emmanuel, God with us. Revelations 3:21 quotes Jesus saying to overcomers that they will be allowed to sit down with Him in His throne, just as the Son was allowed to sit at the right hand of the Father in His throne. The message in this passage is one of two deities in two separate thrones.
The Bible uses many different titles in reference to Jesus the Son of God. A number of these titles can't possibly be used in reference to the Father, but apply only to the Son:
Jesus the Son of God--nowhere in the Bible is this title used to describe anyone other than Jesus the Christ.
Advocate -I John 2: 1, "We have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous".
Propitiation-- I John 2:2, "He is the propitiation for our sins". Romans 3:25, "Whom God set forth to be a propitiation by His blood'.
Mediator -Galatians 2:19-20, "It was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is one". I Timothy 2:5, "For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus". Hebrews 8:6, "By how much also He is the mediator of a better covenant". Hebrews 9:15, "And for this cause He is the mediator of the New Testament". Hebrews 12:24, "And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant".
Intercessor--Isaiah 59:16, "And He saw that there was no man, and wondered that there was no intercessor: therefore His arm brought salvation" 59:20, "And the Redeemer shall come to Zion". Hebrews 7:25, "Wherefore He is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by Him, seeing He ever liveth to make intercession for them".
Reconciler--Ephesians 2:16, "That He might reconcile both unto God", 2:18, "for through Him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father". Romans 5: 10, "We were reconciled to God by the death of His Son". 2 Corinthians 5:19, "To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself'.
Servant -- Isaiah 42: 1, "Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon Him: He shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles". This passage is repeated again in Matthew 12:18. Jesus calls Himself a servant in John 13:16, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, the servant is not greater than his Lord; neither He that is sent greater than He that sent Him". Luke 22:27, "But I am among you as He that serveth". Philippians 2:7, "But made himself of no reputation, and took upon Him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men".
Firstfruits -- I Corinthians 1-5:20, "But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept", 15:23, "But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits, afterward they that are Christ's at His coming".
Last Adam -- I Corinthians 15:45, "the last Adam was made a quickening spirit".
Bread of life -- John 6:35, "I am the bread of life".
Chief cornerstone -- Ephesians 2:20, "Jesus Christ Himself being the chief cornerstone".
Chief shepherd -- I Peter 5:4, "When the chief shepherd shall appear".
Firstborn -- Colossians 1: 18, "He is the head of the body, the church: Who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead". Romans 8:29, "For whom He did foreknow, He also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren".
Good shepherd --John 10:11, "I am the good shepherd".
Great Shepherd--Hebrews 13:20, "Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep".
High Priest--Hebrews 3:1, "High Priest of our profession, Jesus Christ".
Holy One of God-Mark 1:24, "I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God".
Emmanuel--Matthew 1:23, "they shall call His name Emmanuel".
King of Kings -- Revelation 19:16, "King of Kings, and Lord of Lords".
Lamb of God -- John 1:29, "Behold the Lamb of God".
Light of the world -- John 9:5, "I am the light of the world".
Only Begotten of the Father -- John 1: 14, "the glory as of the only begotten of the Father". John 4:42, "Christ the savior of the world".
Seed of Abraham -Galatians 3:16, "Now to Abraham and his seed--and to thy Seed, which is Christ".
Son of Man -- Matthew 18:1 1, "For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost". Jesus referred to Himself as the Son of man more than three dozen times in the Bible.
The Word -- John 1:1, "the Word was with God".
Our Passover Lamb -- I Corinthians 5:7, "For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us".
Sacrificial Lamb -- I Peter 1:19, "But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot".
Redeemer -- Revelation 5:9, "for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood".
Heir -- Romans 8:17, "And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ".
There is no way to describe Jesus as an advocate, mediator, intercessor, heir, and son of man without interacting between God the Father and human kind. These terms specifically relate to actions between two or more parties. Why would there be a need for a mediator if there is only one to relate to? How could Jesus be an heir to Himself? When Jesus is described as an advocate, is He pleading to Himself If Jesus can make decisions without consulting the Father, why does He pray that God's will be accomplished over His own will? Only the Father can be called the most high God, Genesis 14:18, Lamentations 3:38, Mark 5:7, Acts 16:17, and Hebrews 7: 1. There are about three dozen scriptures that refer to the most high God. With the term "most high" there is a delineation of deity between Father and Son. James 1: 13, states, "Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man". Paul writes about Jesus in Hebrews 2:18, "For in that He Himself hath suffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted". Hebrews 4:15, "For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin". Matthew 4:1, "Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil". Since Jesus was tempted and God can't be, there is no way they could be the same deity.
The portrayal of God and Jesus as two deities in the previously described scriptures help to demonstrate the humility of Jesus in the presence of the Father. Jesus the Son did not ever claim to be the most high God nor did He ever lead anyone else to believe that. The teachings of Jesus pointed all His followers to the Father in heaven and He never invited worship of Himself To do otherwise would have been blasphemy toward the most high God who is the Father. Paul in I Corinthians 15:20-24, "But every man in his own order, Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at His coming. Then cometh the end, when He shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when He shall have put down all rule and all authority and power". I Corinthians 15:28, "And when all things shall be subdued unto Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject unto Him that put all things under Him, that God may be all in all". When Paul writes about the fact that Jesus is subdued and subject to the Father there is a clear division of authority between the Father and the Son.
The deity of Jesus only began when He was spoken into existence by God the Father. The most high everlasting Father would not and could not reduce Himself into a helpless human infant totally dependent upon its mother. Only Jesus the Son could fill that role. God the Father sacrificed His Son in the same manner that He called upon Abraham to sacrifice his son, Genesis 22:9-12. Hebrews II: 17, "By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac; and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son". Only the Son of God could be a sacrifice for humanity. The Bible states in 2 Corinthians 5:2 1, "For He hath made Him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him". Since Jesus was sinless, He had to be made sin in order to be the sacrifice that would deliver mankind. God the Father could not be made sin and He could not be a sacrifice. Romans 8:32, "He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also freely give us all things"? God the Father cannot die, but Jesus did.
Because Jesus became the sacrifice, it was necessary for Him to die including both His soul and His body. He could not duplicate the pattern of animal sacrifices under the old covenant without dying both body and soul. Isaiah 54:10-12, "Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise Him; He hath put Him to grief when thou shalt make His soul an offering for sin, He shall see His seed, He shall prolong His days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in His hand. He shall see of the travail of His soul, and shall be satisfied; by His knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for He shall bear their iniquities. Therefore will I divide Him a portion with the great, and He shall divide the spoil with the strong; because He hath poured out His soul unto death: and He was numbered with the transgressors; and He bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors". Psalm 16:10, "For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption". This same scripture is quoted in Acts 2:27.
Ezekiel says in 18:4 and in 18:20, "the soul that sinneth, it shall die". James 5:20, "Let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death". This leaves no doubt about the soul dying. Jesus had to experience this type of death to replicate the human experience. A Trinitarian was overheard saying that Jesus knew what it was like to lose a child because He was both Father and Son. The futility of that statement is that it claims that Jesus sacrificed Himself and raised Himself from the dead. This is preposterous because the Bible says otherwise. A recent Christmas song states that Mary looked into the face of God and I have quoted scriptures previously that specifically state that no one has seen God. If we are to believe that Jesus walked this earth as a human being, we cannot claim that He is the invisible Father God. Humans give life to the soul and body of humans through a seed and God gave life to Jesus from His own spiritual seed.
Paul tells us that God the Father raised up Jesus in 2 Corinthians 4:14, "Knowing that He which raised up the Lord Jesus shall raise up us also by Jesus, and shall present us with you". Jesus could no more raise Himself from the dead than Lazarus could raise himself from death. Jesus prayed over the body of Lazarus, John 11:41, "Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me--because of the people which stand by I said it, that they may believe that thou hast sent me". Jesus said in Matthew 10:28, "Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear Him which is able to destroy both soul and body". Many people say that Jesus raised Himself from the grave like a cork that rises to the surface when submerged in water. The Bible repudiates that idea. Jesus would still be in the grave without the Father raising Him from death. Acts 2:31, "He seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that His soul was not left in hell, neither His flesh did see corruption". Romans 6:4, "Therefore we are buried with Him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life". Romans 6:9, "Knowing that Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more; death hath no more dominion over Him".
Other scriptures which clearly indicate that God raised Jesus from the grave are: Romans 4:24, "But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on Him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead"; Romans 8:1 1, 'But if the Spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by His Spirit that dwelleth in you"; Acts 2:24, "Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that He should be holden of it"; Acts 13:37, "But He, whom God raised again, saw no corruption"; I Corinthians 6:14, "And God hath both raised up the Lord, and will also raise up us by His own power"; 15:15, "because we have testified of God that He raised up Christ"; Ephesians 1:20, "Which He wrought in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right hand in the heavenly places"; I Peter 1:21, "Who by Him do believe in God, that raised Him up from the dead and gave Him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God"; Philippians 2:8-9, "And being found in fashion as a man, He humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross wherefore God also hath highly exalted Him, and given Him a name which is above every name".
The previous scripture is one of many indicating that Christ humbled Himself before the Father. The very act of prayer is indicative of Christ's humility and submission to the Father. Luke 5:16, "And He withdrew Himself into the wilderness, and prayed". Vine's dictionary of Greek words defining prayer are euchomai, prosenchomai, erotas, deomai, euche, proseuche, deests, entenxis. English translations mean to ask, desire, to call to one's aid, a wanting or a need. Thus, the act of praying is essentially communion with God, adoration of God, thanksgiving to God, confession to God, petition to God or submission to God. Jesus did all of these things in His prayers to His Father. Only Jesus could exhibit such reverence to His Father. God the Father has no need to pray because He is the supreme deity. To whom would He pray? Jesus felt the need to pray because He was desirous to do the will of the Father and not His own will. John 5:30, "I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me". I have already made reference to the prayer of Jesus at the tomb of Lazarus, John 11:41-42. Jesus prayed for Himself in the seventeenth chapter of John in addition to many others including His disciples and the church. Jesus prayed for deliverance in Matthew 26:39, "O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt"; 26:42, "O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done". And it is recorded in 26:44 that He prayed the same prayer a third time. Jesus prayed for the forgiveness of others in Luke 23:34, "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do". Jesus prays His final prayer of submission in Luke 23:46, "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit". He had no further control over Himself as He passed into death.
In Hebrews 5-5, Paul writes, "Christ glorified not Himself to be made an high priest; but He that said unto Him, thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee", and in 5:8, "Though He were a Son, yet teamed He obedience by the things which He suffered". Paul also writes in Hebrews 2:17, "Wherefore in all things it behooved Him to be made like unto His brethren, that He might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people". This passage refers to Christ's followers as His brethren. Paul writes in 2 Corinthians 6:16-18, "for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people-and will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty". Romans 8:16-17, "The spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God, and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ". Jesus is not only our Lord and Savior, but also a brother and joint heir in God's kingdom.
The key is that the Spirit bears witness. Very seldom is the Spirit referred to as "it" or "itself" as Paul does in Romans 8:16. The reason is that the Hebrew and Greek languages express gender in nouns and pronouns and have no word for "it". Thus, a masculine or feminine pronoun is used to describe gender and in reference to the Holy Spirit as an extension of God the Father is called "he". The use of the pronoun "he" in reference to the Holy Spirit is offered as proof by Trinitarians that the Holy Spirit is a third person in the trinity of one. John records in 4:24, "God is a Spirit; and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth". This Spirit of God is called the Holy Spirit in some places and in other places in the Bible is called the Holy Ghost. There are no scriptures giving the Holy Spirit a personal entity. I John 5:7, states, "For there are three who bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one". I John 5:8, explains further, "And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one". John lets us know immediately that his use of the word "one" is to denote agreement as one and not one entity. David talks about feeling the presence of the Holy Spirit in Psalm 5 1:11, "Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy Holy Spirit from me". In I John 4:13, "Hereby know we that we dwell in Him, and He in us, because He hath given us of His Spirit" we are reminded that this is God's Spirit and not an entity. Romans 8:9-11, "But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His. And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by His Spirit that dwelleth in you". Paul says in 2 Corinthians 6:16, "as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God".
The Bible says in many places that we can be filled with the Holy Ghost, be baptized by the Holy Ghost, we can receive the Holy Ghost, we can be taught by the Holy Ghost, we can pray in the Holy Ghost, we can commune with the Holy Ghost and we can be sanctified by the Holy Ghost. To me, the most remarkable of these is the fact that we can be baptized with the Holy Ghost just as we are baptized in water. Water and spirit are used interchangeably often in the Bible. John the Baptist was the first to state this in Matthew 3:11, "He that cometh after me is mightier and He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost"; Mark 1:8. "He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost"; Luke 3:15, "He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost"; John 1:33, "Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Mm, the same is He which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost". The book of Acts 1:5, "Ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence"; 11:16, "ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost"; 8:17, "they received the Holy Ghost"; 19:6, "and when Paul had laid hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues". Paul writes in I Corinthians 6:19, "What? Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?" Also in 2 Timothy 1:14, "That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us".
There are many references in the scriptures to those who have been filled with the Holy Spirit and others who have written about being full of the Holy Spirit. In Luke 1:15, "He (John) shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall be filled with the Holy Ghost". Luke 1:41, 'Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost; 4:1, "And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan". In Acts 2:4, "And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost"; 4:8, "Then Peter, filled with the Holy Ghost"; 4:13, "And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost"; 6:3, "Seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost"; 6:5, "Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost"; 7:55, "But he, being full of the Holy Ghost"; 9:17, "that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost"; 13:9, "Then Paul filled with the Holy Ghost"; 13:52, "And the disciples were filled with joy, and with the Holy Ghost". It is recorded that Jesus was filled with the Holy Ghost by the Father in Acts 2:13, "Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost"; 10:38, "How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power".
Jesus promised His disciples that the Holy Ghost would be given after His ascension as a comforter and gift, John 10:26, "But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name"; Luke 24:49, "And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high". This passage was a reference to the promise God gave the prophet Joel 2:28, "And it shall come to pass afterward that I will pour out My Spirit upon all flesh". This gift of the Holy Ghost is mentioned by Peter in Acts 2:-18, "Ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost"; Acts 10:45, "that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost"; Hebrews 2:4, God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost"; Hebrews 6:4, "and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost". In none of these scriptures is there the slightest inference that the Holy Ghost is anything other than a gift of God's own Spirit to both His son Jesus and His children who are saved through the death of Jesus Christ. John 3:14, "For He whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto Him"; I Thessalonians 4:8, "He therefore that despiseth, despiseth not man, but God, who hath also given unto us His Holy Spirit". If the Holy Spirit was a person as claimed by the trinity, how could it be given to mankind?
This same Holy Spirit as mentioned in the foregoing scriptures dwells in me as a gift of God and teaches me about the word of God. Luke 12:12, "For the Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what ye ought to say". My gift of the Holy Spirit directs me when I allow it to, yet I often disobey or ignore such guidance. Just as David wrote in the Psalm 32:8, "I will instruct thee and teach thee in the way which thou shalt go: I will guide thee with mine eye". John records in I John 2:27, "But the anointing which ye have received of Him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in Him". Paul says in I Corinthians 2:10-14, "But God bath revealed them unto us by His Spirit; for the Spirit searcheth all things, yes, the deep things of God; for what man knoweth the things of a man save the spirit of man which is in him? Even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God; Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God; which things we also speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; but the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God because they are spiritually discerned". The Godhead is understood through the Holy Spirit and not through intellectual reasoning.
In the second epistle of John is recorded, "The elder unto the elect lady and her children, whom I love in the truth; and not I only, but also all they that have known the truth; for the truth's sake, which dwelleth in us, and shall be with us for ever. Grace be with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love". Paul records in I Corinthians 8:2-6, "And if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know, but if any man love God, the same is known of Him. But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by Him". John 5:26, "For as the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself.” Jesus speaks in John 17:8, "For I have given unto them the words which thou gavest me; and they have received them, and have known surely that I came out from Thee, and they have believed that thou didst send me". Paul writes in I Corinthians 15:28, "And when all things shall be subdued unto Him, then shall the Son also Himself be subject unto Him that put all things under Him, that God may be all in all". The Psalmist wrote in Psalm 8:5, "For thou hast made Him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned Him with glory and honour". This could only be speaking of Jesus being made a little lower than the angels and God has never been lower than the angels. The scripture is repeated by Paul in Hebrews 2:7-9, "Thou madest Him a little lower than the angels; thou crownest Him with glory and honour, and didst set Him over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things in subjection under His feet. For in that He put all in subjection under Him, He left nothing that is not put under Him. But now we see not yet all things put under Him. But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that He by the grace of God should taste death for every man".
Paul writes in Hebrews 1:2-3, "Hath in these last days spoken unto us by His Son, whom He hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also He made the worlds; who being the brightness of His glory, and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high". Paul's writing explains that Jesus reflects the glory and light of the Father just as the moon reflects the light of the sun. The source of the light is the sun and the moon just reflects the source of the light. Jesus reflects the brightness of the Father in the same manner, but let us not forget that the source of the light is the Father. It has been said that one cannot have radiance without the source of the radiance and that is God the Father. God is pleased at the adoration given to His son, but I believe He is also grieved by the fact that man has given equal status to the Son with the Father. God the Father gave a commandment to Moses that the people should have no other gods before Him. When mankind places Jesus on an equal status with the Father, they have broken this commandment.
The eternal God is both Father and God to Jesus Christ the Son and this is clarified in Ephesians 1:3, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ"; 2 Corinthians 1:3, "Blessed be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ"; I Peter 1:3, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ". Jesus explained the difference between Himself and the Father in the fifteenth chapter of John. Jesus states in John 15:1, "I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman"; 15:2, "Every branch in me that beareth not fruit He taketh away; and every branch that beareth fruit, He purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit". The Father is the husbandman or farmer or landowner. The husbandman controls both the land and the vine growing on the land. Jesus compares Himself to the vine growing on His Father's land. In other words, He is owned by the Father. This comparison by Jesus between a human being and a plant certainly draws attention to the fact that He does not equate Himself to the Father in any way. Jesus specifies His separateness from the Father by referring to Himself more than 65 times as the son of man. He uses the personal relationship of Himself to God by calling God "my Father" more than 50 times in the Bible.
Father God is called the "Most High God" thirty three times in the Bible. Isaiah calls the Father, "Lofty One", Isaiah, 57:15, "For thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy". Luke refers to God the Father as, "the Highest", Luke 1:12, "He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of David; 1:15, "And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God"; 1:76, "And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest". The Jews used a variety of names for God the Father. Among these are Elohim as the creator of all things, Yahweh or Jehovah as the eternal or immutable One, Elohim the omnipotent One, Eloah, the living God, Elyon, the most high God, El Shaddai. the Almighty and Adonai as ruler or Lord of the earth.
The Messianic passages of the Old Testament clarified to the Jews that God would send a Messiah or Anointed One to liberate them from their bondage. None of these passages indicate that God Himself would leave the realm of Heaven, but would send a servant to accomplish that purpose. The Messiah was to be born of a virgin (Isaiah 7:14), in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2), He would be a descendant of the house of David (2 Samuel 7:12), a man of sorrows, (Isaiah 53:3), rejected by his people, (Psalm 69:8), betrayed by a friend (Psalm 41:9), crucified between two thieves, (Isaiah 53:12) His spirit commended to His Father, (Psalm 31:5), raised from the dead, (Psalm 16:10), take His place at the right hand, (Psalm 110:1). Jesus fulfilled all of these prophecies as the only begotten Son of God and not as God Himself Jesus said in Matthew 5:17, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." The book of Esther in the Old Testament serves as an archetype of Jesus interceding to the King in behalf of the people.
Jesus invites worship unto Himself as the Son of God but not as the eternal highest supreme God and Father who is first in the Godhead. John 3:34-36, "For He whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto Him. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into His hand. He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him". The Bible gives instances of followers worshiping either God or Jesus or both without reservation as long as it is recognized that God is the highest order of the Godhead. Jesus is called the direct heir of God and we humans are heirs through spiritual birth. God and Jesus are of the same spiritual substance, but because Jesus took on a fleshly body, He now resides at the right hand of the Father (Mark 16:19) with an image similar to what He had on earth (Luke 24:39). Jesus and the Father are separated by a generation just as human fathers and sons are. Jesus described how He was accountable to God the Father, but the Father is accountable to no one. Jesus was given authority by the Father, (John 5:27).
John even labels those who deny Jesus and God as being a part of the antichrist. This is recorded in I John 2:22, "Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son". The belief that God and Jesus are one and the same are denying the existence of both the Father and the Son. Paul tells his followers in 2 Thessalonians 3:15-17, "Therefore, brethren, stand fast, and hold the traditions which ye have been taught, whether by word, or our epistle. Now our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, and God, even our Father, which hath loved us, and hath given us everlasting consolation and good hope through grace, comfort your hearts, and stablish you in every good word and work".
Every translation of the Bible from the first printing to the present tends to lean more forcibly on the doctrine of trinity. Modern translations unashamedly use marginal guides and study aids to promote the doctrine of trinity without biblical basis for same. The doctrine of the trinity was both introduced and embraced by church leaders many years after the death of Jesus' disciples. As explained in the introduction to this document, there were those who resisted the teaching of trinity and they were labeled as heretics. I would rather hold to the Bible scripture and be labeled a heretic than to adhere to some Roman priests' idea about a triune God that has no basis in scripture. If all the scripture quoted in this dissertation can be rejected or ignored by trinitarian thought, then so be it. I choose to believe what the Bible says about Jesus and God. Jude 4 states, "For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ".
To summarize the content of the previous pages, I will reiterate the following main points of the document. I have included a history of Trinitarian and monotheistic thought. I have reviewed what the Bible refers to as "the beginning". The various scriptures that refer to Jesus the Son as the Begotten Son of God and the Firstborn of God are included. A review of scriptures that describe God as Spirit is made. There is an explanation of what is meant by "one" and "oneness" in the Bible. Many scriptures are quoted to show that Jesus now sits at the right hand of the Father. Several scriptures are quoted to show that Jesus was and is the Servant of God. A review of the many terms used in the Bible to describe Jesus that in no way can be applied to God the Father is included. The various scriptures that reveal Jesus as God's sacrifice for mankind are listed. Many scriptures are listed to show that God raised Jesus from the dead and there is no way possible that Jesus could have raised Himself from the dead. There is a section that describes the Holy Spirit and the function of the Holy Spirit in understanding the Godhead. Many scriptures were used to quote Jesus Himself in distinguishing the separateness of Him and the Father.
My purpose in writing this treatise is to get the reader to study the Bible for himself or herself. Over the centuries, Christians have depended upon their leaders to explain the Bible to them rather than study it for themselves. It is a fact that most of what we believe we heard from someone other than God or Jesus. I strongly urge the reader to study the scriptures noted and do not accept my personal assumptions as fact. Neither should the reader dismiss what I have written as false. Please study every scripture that I have listed and ask God to enlighten you personally on the content of the Bible. Why should you or anyone let someone do your thinking for you? Each child of God has an eternal right to know the truth and God will reveal truth when we diligently seek it. Salvation is a personal commitment between a man or woman and his or her God. The Bible tells us that the Holy Spirit can teach us the meaning of any part of the Bible that we do not understand. Through prayer and fasting and faith we can come to know God and His Word in much greater depth than we now experience. Placing a label on a person as a heretic or infidel is barbaric and has no place in God's kingdom. These labels should be reserved for those who totally reject God and His Son.
My Trinitarian friends tell me that they can't explain how God and Jesus and the Holy Spirit are three and yet one. I have no such problem in explaining the separateness of the three. John lays out the complete plan of man's salvation in I John 5. In the first verse is explained how we humans are born of God when we believe upon Jesus the Son and that He was begotten by the Father. This leads to love as described in verses two and three. In verses four and five we learn that we can overcome the world if we believe that Jesus is the Son of God. In verses six, seven and eight the author delineates between the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Verse ten emphasizes the need to accept the two deities as God has given us His Son Jesus. Verses twelve and thirteen conclude that eternal life is given by God through the Son. In I John 4-15 the author describes how God sent Jesus into the world and we can be saved when we acknowledge that Jesus is the Son of God. Jesus tells us over and over again in His own words in the Gospels how He was sent by the Father as a servant to God in behalf of mankind. We can expect no firmer confirmation of that than the recordings of the personal statements of Jesus.
I KINGS 19:13
PSALM 2:7, 8:5, 16:10, 31:5, 41:9, 51:11, 69:7-9, 90:2, 91:1, 91:9, 110:1
ISAIAH 6:8, 7:14, 9:6,40:10, 40:28, 41:20, 42:1, 42:6,45:11,52:13-14, 53:1-12, 55:5, 57:15, 59:16, 59:20,61:1-3
DANIEL 7:13 -14
MATTHEW 1:20-23, 3:11-17, 4:1-10, 5:17, 5:45-48, 6:1, 7:21, 8:29, 9:6,10:28-40, 11:25 27, 12:18, 12:50, 15:13, 16:16, 16:27, 17:5-9, 18:11, 19:17, 20:28-31, 22:42 45, 24:36, 26:39-42, 26:53, 26:64, 27:46
MARK 1:8-11, 1:24, 1:34-35, 5:7, 8:29, 8:38, 9:37,10:45,12:36,14:36,14:62,15:34, 15:39,16:19
LUKE 1:1 5, 1:32-35, 1:41, 1:67, 1:76, 2:25-26 2:52, 3:22, 4:1-12, 4:41, 5:16, 6:35, 9:56, 10:21-22, 11:2-4, 11:13, 12:12, 12:50, 18:19, 21:27, 22:27-29, 22:42, 22:69-70, 23:34, 23:46, 24:49
JOHN 1:1-3, 1:14, 1:18, 1:29-36, 4:23-24, 4:34, 5:17, 5:19-32, 5:37, 5:43, 6:37-40, 6:44-46, 6:57, 6:65, 6:69, 7:16-18, 7:39, 8-18-19, 8:26-29, 8:38, 8:42, 8:59, 9:4, 9:35-37,10:18,10:29-32,10:36,11:4,11:41-42,12:26-30,12:44-45,12:49-50, 13:1-3, 13:16, 13:31, 14:2-31, 15:1-10, 15:15-16, 15:20-24, 16:3, 16:5, 16: 1 0, 16:15-17, 15:25-28, 15:32, 17:1-11, 17:18-26, 19:7, 19:11, 20:17, 20:21-22, 20:31
ACTS 1:2, 1:4-5, 1:8, 1:16, 2:4, 2:22-24, 2:27, 2:30-33, 2:38, 2:46, 3:13-15, 3:26, 4:8-10, 4:24-27, 4:32, 5:3, 5:12, 5:30-32, 6:3-5, 7:51-56, 8:5, 8:15-19, 8:37, 9:17-20, 9:31, 10:36-47, 11:16-17, 11:24, 1:2-4, 13:9, 13:2-:30-7, 13:52, 15:8, 15:28, 16:6, 16:17, 17:31, 19:2-6, 20:23, 20:28, 21:11, 26:14-18, 28:25
ROMANS 1:3-4, 1.7-9, 2:16, 3:22-25, 4:24, 5:1, 5:5-8, 6:4, 6:9, 6:23, 7:25, 8:3, 8:11, 8:14,-17, 8:27, 8:29, 8:32:34, 8:39, 10:9, 12:4, 12:16, 14:17-18, 15:3, 15:6, 15:16-19, 15:30, 16:20, 16:27
CORINTHIANS 1:3, 1:9, 2:13, 3:6-8, 3:16, 3:23, 6:14, 6:19, 7:17, 8:6, 11:3, 12:3, 15:12-15, 15:20, 15:24, 15:2 8, 15:47, 15:57
2 CORINTHIANS 1:2-3, 1:19-21, 2:14-17, 3:3-4, 3:17, 4:4-6, 4:14, 5:18-21, 11:3 1, 12:19,13:3-4, 13:14
GALATIANS 1:1-3, 2:20, 3:17, 3:29, 4:4, 4:7, 5:16-17, 6:8
EPHESIANS 1:1-3, 1:17, 1:20-22, 2:4-10, 2:14-19, 3:9-10, 3:14, 4:5-6, 4:13, 4:32, 5:2, 5:5, 5:20, 5:31, 6:23
PHILIPPIANS 1:2, 1:11, 1:27, 2:2-11, 2:20, 3:3, 8-9, 3:14, 4:2, 4:19, 4:23
COLOSSIANS 1: 1-3, 1:15-18, 2:2, 2:9, 2:12, 3:3, 10, 3:17
I THESSALONIANS 1: 1-10, 2:15, 3:2, 3:11, 3:13, 4:8, and 5:9
THESSALONLANS 1: 1-2, 2:16
I TIM0THY 1: 1-2, 1:17, 2:5, 6:13, 6:16
2 TIM0THY 1 1-2, 1:14, 2:8, 4: 1
TITUS 1: 14, 3:5-7
HEBREWS 1: 1- 1 3, 2:4, 2:7-10, 2: l1, 2:17-18, 3:2, 3:6, 4:14-15, 5:5-10, 6:4-6, 6:20, 7:22-25, 8:1-6, 9:11-15, 9:24, 10:7, 10:9, 10:12, 10:15, 10:21, 10:29, 11:27, 12:2, 12:23-24, 13:20
JAMES 1: 1, 1:13
I PETER 1:2-3, 1:12, 1:20-21, 2:23, 3:8, 3:22, 4:11, 5:10
2 PETER 1:1-2, 1:17, 1:21
I JOHN 1:2-3, 1:7, 2:1-2, 2:13-16, 2:20-23, 3:1-2, 3:8, 3:23, 4:9-15, 5:1-13, 5:20
2 JOHN 1:3, 1:9
JUDE 1, 4, 20, 21
REVELATION 1:5-6, 2:18, 2:27, 3:12, 3:14, 3:21, 7:10, 7:17, 11:15, 12:10, 12:17, 14:4, 14:12, 19:13, 22:3, 22:13